PHSC 210 WEEK 3 Mastering Geology Assignments 5 Mastering Geology Assignments 5 Item 1 What do we call seismic waves that are transmitted along the outside of Earth? surface waves longitudinal waves body waves S waves P waves   Part B Which of the following motions best describes the movement of S waves as they travel through rocks following the release of energy during an earthquake? in a circular orbit a sequence of compression and dilation up and down opposite to the direction of travel shaking particles at right angles to the direction of travel back and forth Part C Which of the three types of seismic waves travels through rock with the greatest velocity? surface waves S waves P waves Part D Which of the following types of seismic body waves travels only through solids? S waves radio waves ocean waves P waves surface waves Part E Early in the study of earthquakes, seismologists learned that P waves arrive at seismograph stations all over Earth, but a shadow zone exists for S waves. Which of the following responses best explains this phenomenon? S waves do not have enough energy to make it around the outside of Earth. P wave energy blocks out the transmission of S waves in this zone. The outer part of the mantle is liquid. Compression and dilation caused by the travel of S waves prevents them from reaching the other side of Earth. The outer core of Earth is liquid.   Part F Which type of seismic waves generally cause the most structural damage as they travel through Earth? P waves ocean waves S waves surface waves radio waves Part A   Which of the following responses best describes the epicenter of an earthquake? The point within Earth where the energy of the earthquake is released. The point on a fault where there is no movement recorded after an earthquake. The point halfway between the focus and the surface of Earth. The point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake. The zone on Earth, opposite the focus, where no S waves are received at seismograph stations.   Part B In calculating the location of the epicenter of an earthquake, which of the following factors is most useful? the distance between the depth of the focus of an earthquake and the surface of Earth the difference in arrival time of P and S waves the amplitude of surface waves the difference in arrival time between body and surface waves the length of the trace of the surface waves on a seismogram   Part C In addition to a travel-time graph, at least how many seismograph stations are needed to determine the location of the epicenter of an earthquake? four two three five one   Part D As the distance between the epicenter of an earthquake and a seismograph station increases, so does the difference in the arrival times of the P and S waves. What causes this? P waves travel through solid, liquid, and gas. P wave amplitude is lower than S wave amplitude. The S wave shadow zone prevents them from arriving at some seismograph stations. S waves are faster than P waves. P waves are faster than S waves. Part E Which statement provides the best explanation of why most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries? Plate boundaries are locations on Earth where volcanoes often occur. New lithosphere is created at some plate boundaries. Plate boundaries are locations on Earth where portions of the lithosphere interact as they move past each other. As one portion of oceanic lithosphere is subducted under another, earthquakes are common as an island arc is produced. Friction occurs as lithospheric plates slide past each other at transform boundaries. Item 3   The amount of destruction to man-made structures caused by an earthquake depends on many factors such as the earthquake magnitude and duration and the types of rocks and sediments that are shaken. Most of all, however, the amount of destruction caused by an earthquake is due to the vulnerability of buildings. Building materials, construction techniques, and building codes in large part determine the vulnerability of an area to earthquake damage. The type of plate boundary determines whether a tsunami is likely to form. Convergent plate boundaries adjacent to an ocean basin are likely to produce tsunamis because these earthquakes cause vertical motion, whereas transform plate boundaries do not produce vertical motion and are therefore not likely to produce tsunamis. The question below compares two earthquakes that occurred in 2010. An earthquake in Haiti on January 12, 2010, that occurred along a transform plate boundary had a magnitude of 7.0 and caused tremendous destruction. In southern Haiti, nearly 100,000 houses were destroyed and almost 200,000 were damaged. Over 200,000 people died due to the earthquake in Haiti. An even larger earthquake of magnitude 8.8 occurred on February 27, 2010, along a convergent plate boundary near the coast of Chile. Although it was about 500 times larger than the Haitian earthquake, it caused far less destruction. In the Chilean earthquake, 577 people lost their lives as a result of the earthquake; about half of the fatalities were due to a tsunami generated from the earthquake.     Part A – Comparing the effects of an earthquake in two locations Which of the following best describes why the 2010 earthquake in Chile caused a large tsunami while the 2010 earthquake in Haiti only caused a small and local tsunami? The earthquake in Haiti was the result of motion on a transform boundary, which does not produce any vertical motion of the sea floor, whereas the Chilean earthquake was the result of motion along a convergent plate boundary, which does. Haiti is not located near an ocean, whereas Chile is located near an ocean. The earthquake in Haiti was too small to have produced a tsunami. The Chilean earthquake was much larger and thus able to produce a tsunami. The earthquake in Haiti was the result of motion on a convergent boundary, which does not produce any vertical motion of the sea floor, whereas the Chilean earthquake was the result of motion along a transform plate boundary, which does.   Item 4   Part A Of the physical features listed, which is associated with the greatest earthquake hazard? Sierra Nevada Great Lakes Appalachian Mountains Colorado Plateau Great Plains   Part B Which of the following states has the greatest earthquake hazard? Iowa Arizona Idaho California Georgia   Part C The majority of volcanoes are associated with which type of tectonic plate boundary? divergent boundaries uncertain plate boundaries transform fault boundaries convergent boundaries Volcanoes are equally distributed along all the plate-boundary types.   Part D Which of the following best represents the relationship between earthquakes and tectonic plates? More earthquakes are found along tectonic plate boundaries than within a single tectonic plate. Earthquakes are found only along convergent plate boundaries. More earthquakes are found within a single tectonic plate than along tectonic plate boundaries. Earthquakes are found only along divergent plate boundaries. Earthquakes are found only along transform fault boundaries. Part E In which of the following regions does the greatest number of people live in areas exposed to the risk of earthquakes? eastern North America northern Africa southeastern Asia northern Europe southern South America Part F Which of the following bodies of water is associated with seafloor spreading? Black Sea Persian Gulf Mediterranean Sea Indian Ocean Red Sea Item 5   Part A Earth’s outer layer is composed of seven dominant plates. What is the name of this rigid outer layer? mantle asthenosphere lithosphere mesosphere hydrosphere   Part B What type of plate interaction produces the San Andreas Fault? Diverging plates plates sliding past one another converging plates   Part C The bend in the stone walls in the town of Hollister, California are a result of __________. a fault creep along the Calaveras Fault a large earthquake that caused major loss of life and property damage ground subsidence due to compaction of unlithified sediments groundwater withdrawal from a former sag pond extensive igneous activity whereby magma rose towards the surface, causing structural damage   Part D The offset of Wallace Creek is caused by __________. right-lateral movement along the San Andreas strike-slip fault left lateral slip along the San Andreas normal fault subduction of the Pacific plate under the North American Plate squeezing along the Big Bend over the past 2-4 million years movement of the North American plate as it slides past the California plate in a northwest direction   Part E What causes an earthquake such as the one that occurred in San Francisco in 1906? As plates move, stress builds up at the boundary. When the boundary eventually snaps, energy is released as an earthquake. As volumes of magma beneath the lithosphere rise toward the surface, the sudden upward thrust causes an earthquake to occur. An abrupt change in the direction of plate motion causes an earthquake to occur (e.g. when a plate that is moving northward suddenly moves to the south). When the two edges of a fault slowly glide past one another, an earthquake occurs


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