Four prior case-control studies and three cohort studies of caffeine intake during pregnancy have shown an increased risk of low-birth-wei

Question 13

Four prior case-control studies and three cohort studies of caffeine intake during pregnancy have shown an increased risk of low-birth-weight infants among women who consumed high amounts of caffeine.

Answer

Consistency

Dose-response

Temporality

Biological plausibility

Strength of the association

Question 14

The risk of low birth weight increased as the caffeine consumption increased. Compared to women who did not consume any caffeine during pregnancy, the relative risk of giving birth to a low-birth-weight infant was 1.4 for women who had low caffeine consumption, 2.3 for women who had moderate caffeine consumption, and 5.6 for women who had high caffeine consumption.

Answer

Consistency

Dose-response

Temporality

Biological plausibility

Strength of the association

Question 15

Use the following information to answer questions 15-17.

Suppose that your company has just developed a new screening test for a disease and you are in charge of testing its validity and feasibility. You decide to evaluate the test on 1000 individuals and compare the results of the new test to the gold standard. Below are the results.

Gold Standard Determination of Disease

Total

Results of Screening Test

Yes

No

Positive

285

7

292

Negative

15

693

708

Total

300

700

1,000

Calculate the sensitivity of the new screening test. Answer

285/300 = 95%

285/1000 = 28.5%

15/300 = 5%

693/700 = 99%

Question 16

What is the correct interpretation of the results of a calculation of specificity?

Answer

The test is able to correctly classify as positive 95% of those with the disease.

The test is able to correctly classify as negative 99% of those without the disease.

Of those who screened positive, 97.6% of them actually have the disease.

Of those who screened negative, 97.9% of them actually do not have the disease.

 

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