Developing etiologic hypotheses

Question 19

The p-value for this odds ratio is 0.06. What is the correct interpretation of this p-value?

Answer

Given that the null hypothesis is not true, the chances of seeing these results, or more extreme results, is 6%

Given that the null hypothesis is true, there is a 6% chance that users of cell phones will develop brain cancer

Given that the null hypothesis is true, the chances of seeing these results, or more extreme results, is 6%

Given that the null hypothesis is not true, there is no association between cell phone use and brain cancer.

Question 20

Gender was considered a potential confounder and effect measure modifier in this study. The data were stratified into males and females in order to assess these issues.

Males

Females

Cases

Controls

Cases

Controls

Cellular Phone User

Yes

242

150

Yes

28

50

No

100

50

No

105

150

Stratum-specific OR = 0.8

Stratum-specific OR = 0.8

Choose the correct statement about gender as a confounder and/or effect modifier in this study. Answer

Gender is a confounder and effect modifier.

Gender is not a confounder but is an effect modifier

Gender is a confounder but not an effect modifier

Gender is neither a confounder nor an effect modifier

Question 21

The uses of epidemiology include:

Answer

Understanding how a risk factor is related to a health outcome

Developing etiologic hypotheses

Evaluation of health services

All of the above

Question 22

John Snow:

Answer

Was the father of modern biostatistics.

Established postulates for transmission of infectious disease.

Was an early epidemiologist who used natural experiments.

Argued that the environment was associated with diseases such as malaria.

 

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